In 1759, the Governor of Nova Scotia was empowered to give land grants to New England settlers wanting to come to Nova Scotia. Soon after, Charles Morris, the chief land-surveyor for Nova Scotia, came to look at various sites along the Bay of Fundy. He was able to lay out townships and Cornwallis was located in the north side of the Grand Habitant river. The first land grants in the Township were given in 1759 but some were never claimed and so additional new grants were given in 1761. Between 1761 and 1827, the Township of Cornwallis grew to a population of 4,400. Communities within the Township developed basic industries such as milling, blacksmithing, shipbuilding, fishing, and farming. The collection consists of items relating to the Township of Cornwallis, including a record book, information about the Poor House, and information about schools.